Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis
A disorder that mimics bacterial prostatitis, where a person may experience pain with voiding or bowel movements, pain with ejaculation, pain in genitals, abdomen or low back, but no infection is found and antibiotics are not effective in treating.
Irritation of the pudendal nerve, the nerve that supplies the sensation and muscle control of the pelvic floor and perineum. Symptoms can range from discomfort when wearing tighter clothing to pain with sitting to bowel/bladder dysfunction.
Refers to the dysfunctional activation of the muscles surrounding the anus.
Can also be referred to as Painful Bladder Syndrome, is a condition noted by inflammation of the lining of the bladder, where one can experience increased urinary urgency, pain before/during/after urination, increased abdominal pain or pressure. Symptoms can range from mild to severe.
Defined as coccyx or tailbone pain that can occur with sitting, transitions from sit to stand, pain with bowel movements or pain with intercourse. Coccydynia can be caused by a malalignment of the coccyx (tailbone) or muscle dysfunction and/or connective tissue surrounding the coccyx.
Refers to the dysfunctional response of the pelvic floor muscles in response to attempts at releasing. This can significantly affect the ability to have proper bowel movements, cause pain, or lead to further complications.
Levator Ani Syndrome
Typically refers to pain that is experienced due to dysfunction of the levator ani muscles of the pelvic floor; is often used synonymously with the term Pelvic Floor Dysfunction. Symptoms of levator ani syndrome can include pain, bowel or bladder dysfunction or sexual dysfunction.
Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder (PGAD)/ Priapism
Although it is most commonly noted in women, PGAD is a condition that refers to spontaneous, persistent, and uncontrollable genital arousal, with or without orgasm or genital engorgement, unrelated to any feelings of sexual desire. In men, this is sometimes referred to as Priapism and if it is of neuromuscular or musculoskeletal origin it can be treated with proper physical therapy techniques.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
A common disorder of the gastrointestinal system where signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, gas and changes in bowel pattern as increased frequency, constipation or diarrhea. IBS may result from, or may result in, tightened, weakened or incoordination of the pelvic and abdominal musculature.
Defined as the accidental loss of urine. This can be due to muscle spasm or muscle weakness. There are 3 main types of urinary incontinence:
- Urge Incontinence
Urine loss due to a strong urge/desire. Can often occur en route to the restroom or with other triggers such as running water.
- Stress Incontinence
Urine loss due to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure that is greater than environmental pressures. These “stressors” that cause an increase in intra-abdominal pressure can be coughing, sneezing, laughing, lifting or exercise.
Urine loss due to a combination of urge and stress incontinence.
Defined as the unexpected leakage of stool from the rectum, is most commonly due to weakness of the pelvic floor and can be successfully treated through conservative physical therapy.
Defined as infrequent bowel movements, difficulty of passage of stool, or incomplete bowel movements. Constipation can sometimes be caused by tight, weak or uncoordinated abdominal and pelvic floor musculature. Constipation, as a result of muscle dysfunction can be conservatively and successfully treated through physical therapy.
Defined as intermittent, severe anorectal pain that has no other known cause. The sporadic and short bursts of pain experienced with proctalgia fugax make it difficult to determine the underlying cause, but spasm of the anal sphincter and/or pudendal nerve compression have been two of the suggested causes.
A large percentage of men can experience urinary incontinence or erectile dysfunction after prostatectomy, the surgical removal of the prostate, most commonly performed due to cancer. Research shows that physical therapy can assist in reducing the incidence of these occurring if seen before surgery, but can also be effective in decreasing or eliminating these symptoms if utilized after surgery.
Weak pelvic floor, chronic straining for bowel movements or poor general core activation strategies with activity such as lifting or coughing can result in the “falling” of the rectum, resulting in symptoms of constipation, pelvic pain/heaviness. Prolapse can be prevented with proper activation of muscle, good posture/positioning in and out of activity and weight control. If prolapse has already occurred, then physical therapy can help address causative factors, assist in building strength and decrease symptoms. Surgical intervention is sometimes suggested by the physician in more involved cases; physical therapy is still extremely beneficial before surgery in order to be more aware of proper muscle control and healthy bowel and bladder habits.