Infants born prior to 37 weeks gestational age. It is not uncommon for infants in this category to experience a delay in gross motor skill development.
Increased tension in muscles contributing to abnormal movement patterns and potential delay in achieving motor milestones.
Below normal tension in muscles, often resulting in weakness and potential for delay in motor skills or joint injuries.
Ataxia / Motor Planning Disorders
Abnormalities in movement patterns, balance, coordination and gait (walking / running pattern).
Tightness in the sternocleidomastoid muscle which connects the sternum (breastbone) to the skull. Tightness in this muscle causes the head to tilt toward one side and rotate toward the opposite side, and can result in abnormal head shape and changes in posture and movement patterns.
Also referred to as positional plagiocephaly or “flat head syndrome.” A condition characterized by an asymmetrical distortion (flattening of one side) of the skull. This is frequently associated with torticollis, and may improve with treatment of torticollis or may require additional treatment.
Disorder that affects muscle tone and movement quality, caused by brain damage that happens before or during birth.
A genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third copy of the 21st chromosome. Down Syndrome is typically associated with low muscle tone (floppy muscles), growth delays, characteristic facial features and mild to moderate intellectual disability.
A genetic disorder marked by progressive weakening / muscle wasting.
A congenital defect of the spine in which part of the spinal cord and its meninges are exposed through a gap in the backbone. It often causes paralysis or significant weakness in the legs.
Other Neuromuscular Disorders
A neuromuscular disorder is characterized by impairment of the central or the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes muscles, the nerve-muscle (neuromuscular) junction, peripheral nerves in the limbs and the motor-nerve cells in the spinal cord.
Other Genetic Disorder
Any inherited medical condition caused by an abnormality in one’s genetic code/DNA.
Other Musculoskeletal Disorder
Injuries or disorders that affect the ability of an individual to move.
A body wound or shock produced by sudden physical injury, as from violence or accident.
Toe walking is when a child walks on the toes or ball of the foot without the heel or other parts of the foot coming in contact with the floor. Sometimes there is an underlying condition that can cause a child to walk on the toes (such as abnormal muscle tone or tight muscles).
Bowel and Bladder Dysfunction
Issues with urinating or passing stool, including, but not limited to: daytime / night time urinary incontinence, daytime / night time fecal incontinence, constipation, overactive or underactive bladder.
Involuntary urine loss associated with coughing, laughing, sneezing, exercising or other movements that increase intra-abdominal pressure and thus increase pressure on the bladder.
Involuntary urine loss associated with a strong, sudden need to urinate / overactive bladder. This is the most common form of functional incontinence in children.
Involuntary loss of urine associated with laughing (full void occurs during or just after laughing). Bladder function is normal otherwise. This occurs almost exclusively in girls.
Enuresis / “Bed Wetting”
Involuntary loss of urine that occurs while sleeping.
A condition in which there is difficulty in emptying the bowels, often, but not always associated with hardened feces.
Fecal incontinence, repeatedly having bowel movements in places other than the toilet after the age when bowel control can normally be expected (3-5 year of age).
Wide range of issues that occur when muscles of the pelvic floor are tight, or there is an impairment of the sacroiliac joint, lower back, coccyx, or hip joints. Symptoms include pelvic pain, pressure, dyspareunia (pain with vaginal penetration), incontinence, incomplete emptying, and gross organ protrusion. Tissues surrounding the pelvic organs may have increased or decreased sensitivity or irritation resulting in pelvic pain.
Pain with vaginal penetration, such as with tampon use, gynecologic exam or intercourse.
Pain perceived in the area of the pelvis, the lower part of the abdomen located between the hip bones.
Low back and / or hip pain caused by excess tension or laxity in the iliopsoas muscle (muscle which bends the hip).